Why America lost so many of its black teachers – Civil rights and wrongs

Why America lost so many of its black teachers

Before 1964 nearly half of college-educated African-Americans in the South were teachers

The share of black teachers in government schools nationwide has continued to decline: from 8.1% in 1971 to 6.9% in 1986 and 6.7% today—this during a period during which the black share of the population as a whole has risen to nearly 13%. There are a number of reasons for the decline, including an increased range of professional opportunities for African-Americans in other fields. But it is also true that desegregation accelerated a trend towards ever-greater teacher accreditation requirements that continued to disproportionately affect African-Americans.

When North Carolina raised its cut-off scores for the National Teacher Exam in the late 1970s, for example, it was associated with a 73% drop in newly licenced black teachers in the state between 1975 and 1982.While higher teacher accreditation standards reduce the number of black teachers, they have done little for students of any ethnicity: teacher licencing test scores are weakly related to outcomes for students. That helps to explain why Mr Hanushek found no significant gains in average test scores for American 17-year-olds tested between 1987 and 2017, and no further progress in closing the black-white test gap since the 1980s. The legacy of a discriminatory response to desegregation continues a half-century on, with limited benefit to children.

Source: Why America lost so many of its black teachers – Civil rights and wrongs

Historically Black Colleges and Universities Rankings

Methodology: Historically Black Colleges and Universities Rankings

In total, there were 80 HBCUs eligible to be ranked.

September 11, 2012

For the sixth consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report has produced a ranking of the undergraduate education athistorically black colleges and universities (HBCU). These colleges were compared only with one another for these rankings.

How did we choose the schools to be part of the survey? In order to be on the list, a school currently must be listed as part of the U.S. Department of Education’s Historically Black Colleges and Universities registry.

The Higher Education Act of 1965 defines an HBCU as “any historically black college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation.”

To qualify for the U.S. News ranking, an HBCU also must be an undergraduate baccalaureate-granting institution that enrolls primarily first-year, first-time students and must have been a school that was currently part of the 2013 Best Colleges rankings. In almost all cases, if an HBCU was listed as Unranked in the 2013 Best Colleges rankings, it was also listed as being Unranked in the HBCU rankings (see more details below). In total, there were 80 HBCUs eligible to be ranked, and 8 of those were Unranked.

The data that were used in the HCBU rankings—except the peer survey results, which used a separate HBCU peer assessment survey—were the same as those published and used in the 2013 edition of the Best Colleges rankings.

The U.S. News rankings system rests on two pillars: It relies on quantitative measures that education experts have proposed as reliable indicators of academic quality, and it’s based on our nonpartisan view of what matters in education. The indicators we use to capture academic quality fall into six categories: assessment by administrators at peer institutions, retention of students, faculty resources, student selectivity, financial resources, and alumni giving.

The indicators include input measures that reflect a school’s student body, its faculty, and its financial resources, along with outcome measures—such as graduation rates and freshman retention rates—that signal how well the institution does its job of educating students.

The HBCU rankings are based on the same statistical methodology and weights used in the Best Colleges 2013 rankings for the schools in the Regional Universities andRegional Colleges ranking categories. Following are detailed descriptions of the statistical indicators and the weights that were used to measure academic quality among the HBCUs that were ranked:

Peer assessment (weighting: 25 percent): The U.S. Newsranking formula gives greatest weight to the opinions of those in a position to judge a school’s undergraduate academic excellence. The peer assessment survey allows the top HBCU academics we consult to account for intangibles such as faculty dedication to teaching. Each individual is asked to rate peer schools’ academic programs on a scale from 1 (marginal) to 5 (distinguished). Those who don’t know enough about a school to evaluate it fairly are asked to mark “don’t know.”

In spring and summer of 2012, U.S. News conducted an exclusive peer survey among only the president, provost, and admission dean at each HBCU. Each HBCU received three surveys. The recipients were asked to rate all HBCUs for their undergraduate academic quality, considering each school’s scholarship record, curriculum, and quality of faculty and graduates at schools with which they were familiar.

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http://www.usnews.com/education/articles/2012/09/11/methodology-historically-black-colleges-and-universities-rankings-2